Religion and science is a rich field. Among the aspects of religion covered in this issue of Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science, we have articles dealing with design (The Metaphor of the Architect in Darwin by Ricardo Noguera-Solano), virtue ethics grounded in nature by Nin Kirkham, and our dealing with guilt by George Tsakiridis and with rebirth by David Gosling. Eduardo Cruz considers transhumanism and the impact on ideas and values about natality. If the transhumanist program with its extension of the human life span were successful, we would have to limit new births to avoid overpopulation. The utopian dream borders on a dystopian one, it seems. Transhumanism was addressed in this journal a year ago (Cole-Turner 2012; Geraci 2012; Hughes 2012; Tirosh-Samuelson 2012), and was also a central subject of our first virtual issue (see Drees 2013a). Paul Martin considers one of our conceptual and linguistic tools, the use of metaphors—a classic of religion and science, with works such as those of Mary Gerhart and Allan Russell (1984) and Janet Soskice (1985); see also Masson 2013. Martin uses it to reflect upon the comparison of different religious schemas.
Three articles on emergence and agency have been placed together in a thematic section. Mikael Leidenhag discusses the (ir)relevance of emergence in the science-religion dialogue. Some, also in this journal, have stressed emergence as crucial for a religiously significant understanding of reality (e.g., see the discussion by Zachary Simpson 2013 of the positions of Terrence Deacon and Philip Clayton), whereas in an editorial I called reduction and emergence two sides of the same coin (Drees 2013b). In the same issue an article by Ernan McMullin considered carefully the meaning of reduction—as a term that has shifted over time (Allen 2013; McMullin 2013). Steven Peck speaks of life as emergent agential system, and the emergence of tendencies without teleology. He finds it useful to refer to Henri Bergson, a French philosopher of the early twentieth century, and so does the next author in this issue, Joseph Bracken. However, Brackens analysis of agency and of the possibility of interpreting something as due to supernatural agency, even though empirically also purely natural, owes more to the process metaphysics of Alfred North Whitehead.
Beyond the rich repertoire of articles, there are reviews and announcements. For those who would like to have an individual subscription, read carefully the information on IRAS, the Institute on Religion in an Age of print or online only.
The articles collected are not merely about religion in Asia, as the traditions considered also have their Western presence, both in fairly traditional forms and re-invented in Western forms, as discussed in Colin Campbells The Easternization of the West (2008). One example is the practice of yoga, and the question how such practices and associated claims about chakras may be understood in the context of contemporary science (Maxwell 2009). Some of the issues are shaped by colonial interactions and contemporary confrontations in the West, such as papers on Hindu creationism and avataric evolutionism (Brown 2002, 2007; Gosling 2011). Among the topics that have attracted special attention in the West has been the interpretation of quantum physics, since the bestsellers of Fritjof Capra (1976) and Gary Zukav (1979). For a critical discussion, see Restivo 1984, Jones 1986, and Jones 2010; the latter was reviewed in Zygon (Drees 2012). On this theme see also Duquette 2011 and Ijjas 2013. Another theme, perhaps with greater academic credibility, is the discourse on consciousness and the brain (e.g., Sharma 2004; Yong 2005; Vieten et al. 2006; Colzato and Silk 2010; Deleanu 2010; Hommel and Colzato 2010; Raffone et al. 2010; Tamatea 2010; De Prycker 2011). No doubt, more studies on science and religion in Asia and the global presence of the Asian religions are to come. Submissions welcome!
In October 2013, Ian Barbour celebrated his 90th birthday. At the conference of IRAS in the summer of 2013, there was a special session with Barbour focusing on his contributions to the field. Ian Graeme Barbour (born 1923) has been a founder of the modern American and global science and religion discussion. His Issues in Science and Religion from 1966 set an example and agenda. It was highly appreciated for its four historical chapters (17th-20th century), its four chapters on Religion and the Methods of Science, and its four chapters on Religion and the Theories of Science. This structure shows a love of a clear didactic rhythm that marks also Barbours later writings.
His work has been the subject of much discussion. In Zygon one finds his name among the keywords of twenty articles, but references to him appear much more regularly. A dissertation in German was written by Christian Berg (2002). Almost ten years ago, a festschrift appeared titled Fifty Years in Science and Religion: Ian G. Barbour and His Legacy (2004), edited by Robert J. Russell, a close collaborator who went on to develop the field through his own writings and initiatives, which include founding the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences (CTNS) at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley and its journal Theology and Science. It is also intellectually very appropriate that the endowed chair on religion and science that was created at the Graduate Theological Union, thanks to the work of Russell and currently filled by him, is named after Ian Barbour. Fifty Years included an autobiographical essay, A Personal Odyssey (Barbour 2004), as well as a bibliography of Barbours published works (Berg 2004). Barbour is chronologically the first of three scientist-theologians (Polkinghorne 1996), with Arthur Peacocke and John Polkinghorne, also winners of Templeton prizes (in 2001 and 2002, respectively). In a symposium in Zygon to honor and commemorate Peacocke, Barbour wrote his personal appreciation, while reflecting on similarities and differences (2008a).
On the occasion of the 90th birthday of this key figure in religion and science, Zygon makes freely available Barbours contributions as they have appeared in Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science, beginning with its first issue almost fifty years ago, as a virtual issue in the Wiley Online Library.
A further virtual issue, Intelligent Discourse on Intelligent Design, is scheduled for this fall, also in the Wiley Online Library, available for free. The virtual issues provide an additional opportunity to see what Zygon has on offer, to introduce others to the journal, and to refer students and colleagues to it. Enjoy this issue and explore our rich repertoire of earlier articles. And for those who like to know what is going on, I invite you to follow us on twitter, @Zygonjournal.
Willem B. Drees
Allen, Paul. 2013. An Augustinian Philosopher between Dualism and Materialism: Ernan McMullin on Human Emergence. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 48:294-304.
Andresen, Jensine. 2000. Vajrayāna Art and Iconography. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 35:357-70.
Bagir, Zainal Abidin. 2012. Practice and the Agenda of Islam and Science. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 47:354-66.———. 1993. In Face of Mystery: A Constructive Theology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Barbour, Ian G. 1966. Issues in Science and Religion. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
———. 1990. Religion in an Age of Science. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row.
———. 1997. Religion and Science: Historical and Contemporary Issues. New York: Harper.
———. 2002. On Typologies for Relating Science and Religion. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 37:345-59.
———. 2004. A Personal Odyssey. In Fifty Years in Science and Religion: Ian G. Barbour and His Legacy, ed. Robert J. Russell, 17-28. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
———. 2008a. Remembering Arthur Peacocke: A Personal Reflection. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 43:89-102.
———. 2008b. Taking Science Seriously without Scientism: A Response to Taede Smedes. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 43:259-69.
Berg, Christian. 2002. Thologie im technologischen Zeitalter: Das Werk Ian Barbours als Beitrag zu Verh¨altnisbestimmung von Theologie zu Naturwissenschaft und Technik. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
———. 2004. Published Works of Ian Graeme Barbour. In Fifty Years in Science and Religion: Ian G. Barbour and His Legacy, ed. Robert J. Russell, 341-45. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
Brown, C. Mackenzie. 2002. Hindu and Christian Creationism: Transposed Passages in the Geological Book of Life. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 37:95-114.
———. 2007. The Western Roots of Avataric Evolutionism in Colonial India. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 42:423-47.
———. 2012. Conciliation, Conflict, or Complementarity: Responses to Three Voices in the Hinduism and Science Discourse. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 47:608-23.
Campbell, Colin. 2008. The Easternization of the West: A Thematic Account of Cultural Change in the Modern Era. London: Paradigm Publishers.
Cantor, Geoffrey, and Chris Kenny. 2001. Barbours Fourfold Way: Problems with his Taxonomy of Science-Religion Relationships. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 36:765-81.
Capra, Fritjof. 1976. The Tao of Physics: An Explorations of the Parallels Between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism. Boston, MA: Shambhala.
Cohen, Lawrence. 2003. Where It Hurts: Indian Material for an Ethics of Organ Transplantation. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 63-88.
Cole-Turner, Ronald. 2012. The Singularity and the Rapture: Transhumanist and Popular Christian Views of the Future. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 47:777-96.
Colzato, Lorenza S., and Jonathan Silk. 2010. Imag(in)ing the Buddhist Brain: Editorial Introduction. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 45:591-95.
De Prycker, Valérie. 2011. Unself-conscious Control: Broadening the Notion of Control through Experiences of Flow and Wu-Wei. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 46:5-25.
Deleanu, Florin. 2010. Agnostic Meditations on Buddhist Meditation. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 45:605-26.
Dorman, Eric R. 2011. Hinduism and Science: The State of South Asian Science and Religion Discourse. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 46:593-619.
Drees, Willem B. 2012. Review of Piercing the Veil: Comparing Science and Mysticism as Ways of Knowing, by Richard H. Jones. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 47:645.
———. 2013a. Techno-secularity and Techno-sapiens: Editorial for Zygons First Real Virtual Issue. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 48:5-8.
———. 2013b. Emergence and Reduction: The Same Coin? Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 48:247-50.
Duquette, Jonathan. 2011. Quantum Physics and Vedanta: A Perspective from Bernard dEspagnats Scientific Realism. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 46:620-38.
Edelmann, Jonathan B. 2012. The Role of Hindu Theology in the Religion and Science Dialogue. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 47:624-42.
Ellis, Thomas B. 2012. Growing Up Amid the Religion and Science Affair: A Perspective from Indology. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 47:589-607.
Geraci, Robert M. 2012. Video Games and the Transhuman Inclination. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 47:735-56.
Gerhart, Mary, and Allan Russell. 1984.Metaphoric Process: The Creation of Scientific and Religious Understanding. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press.
Gosling, David L. 2012. Science and the Hindu Tradition: Compatibility or Conflict? Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 47:575-88.
———. 2011. Darwin and the Hindu Tradition: Does What Goes around Come around? Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 46:345-69.
Harrison, Peter. 2010. A Scientific Buddhism? Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 45:861-69.
Hommel, Bernhard, and Lorenza S. Colzato. 2010. Religion as a Control Guide: On the Impact of Religion and Cognition. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 45:596-604.
Hughes, James J. 2012. The Politics of Transhumanism and the Techno-millennial Imagination, 1626-2030. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 47:757-76.
Ijjas, Anna. 2013. Quantum Aspects of Life: Relating Evolutionary Biology with Theology via Modern Physics. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 48:60-76.
Jinpa, Thupten. 2010. Buddhism and Science: How Far Can the Dialogue Proceed? Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 45:871-882.
Jones, Richard H. 1986. Science and Mysticism: A Comparative Study of Western Natural Science, Theravāda Buddhism, and Advaita Vedānta. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press.
———. 2010. Piercing the Veil: Comparing Science and Mysticism as Ways of Knowing Reality. New York: Jackson Square Books.
LaFleur, William R. 2002. From Agape to Organs: Religious Difference between Japan and America in Judging the Ethics of the Transplant. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 37:623-42.
Lopez, Donald S. 2008. Buddhism and Science: A Guide for the Perplexed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
———. 2010. The Future of the Buddhist Past: A Response to the Readers. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 45:883-896.
Masson, Robert. 2013. Without Metaphor, No Saving God: Theology after Cognitive Linguistics. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters.
Maxwell, Richard W. 2009. The Physiological Foundation of Yoga Chakra Expression. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 44:807-24.
McMullin, Ernan. 2013. Biology and the Theology of the Human. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 48:305-28.
Polkinghorne, John. 1996. Scientists as Theologians: A Comparison of the Writings of Ian Barbour, Arthur Peacocke, and John Polkinghorne. London: SPCK.
Raffone, Antonino, Angela Tagini, and Narayanan Srinivasan. 2010. Mindfulness and the Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention and Awareness. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 45:627-46.
Raman, Varadaraja V. 2002. Science and the Spiritual Vision: A Hindu Perspective. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 37:83-94.
———. 2003a. Some Hindu Insights on the Global Ethics in the Context of Diseases and Epidemics. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 38:141-46.
———. 2003b. Hindu Perspectives on the Thirst for Transcendence. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 38:821-39.
———.2012. Hinduism and Science: Some Reflections. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 47:549-74.
Ratanakul, Pinit. 2002. Buddhism and Science: Allies or Enemies? Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 37:115-20.
Restivo, Sal. 1984. The Social Relations of Physics, Mysticism and Mathematics. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel.
Russell, Robert John (ed.). 2004. Fifty Years in Science and Religion: Ian G. Barbour and His Legacy. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
Sharma, Arvind. 2004. The Scientific Study of Religion: Its Contribution to the Study of the Bhagavadgītā. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 39:707-12.
Simpson, Zachary. 2013. Emergence and Non-Personal Theology. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 48:405-27.
Smedes, Taede A. 2008. Beyond Barbour or Back to Basics? The Future of Science-and-Religion and the Quest for Unity. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 43:235-58.
Soskice, Janet Martin. 1985. Metaphor and Religious Language. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Tamatea, Laurence. 2010. Online Buddhist and Christian Responses to Artificial Intelligence. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 45:979-1002.
Tirosh-Samuelson, Hava. 2012. Transhumanism as a Secularist Faith. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 47:710-34.
Vieten, Cassandra, Tina Amorok, and Marilyn Mandala Schlitz. 2006. I to We: The Role of Consciousness Transformation in Compassion and Altruism. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 41:915-31.
Yong, Amos. 2005. Christian and Buddhist Perspectives on Neuropsychology and the Human Person: Pneuma and Pratityasamutpada. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 40:143-66.
———. 2007. Trinh Thuan and the Intersection of Science and Buddhism. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 42:677-84.
Zukav, Gary. 1979. The Dancing Wu-Li Masters: An Overview of the New Physics. New York: William Morrow.