1. . Edward O. Wilson, On Human Nature (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978), p. 222; David P. Barash, Sociobiology and Behavior (Oxford: Elsevier, 1978), p. xiii. Cf. Wilson in Barash, p. xiii, which has “systematic” for “scientific.” In Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975), p. 4, the definition omits “in all kinds of organisms.” The definition in Michael S. Gregory, Anita Silvers, and Diane Hutch, ads., Sociobiology and Human Nature (San Francisco: Jossey‐Bass, 1978), p. 2, adds “including sexual parental behavior, in all kinds of organisms….” None of the variations affect the substance of the definition. However, the more descriptive definition at the beginning of On Human Nature makes much more explicit the claim that societies have biological properties, a much more controversial claim: “Sociobiology…is a more explicit hybrid discipline [than ethology] that incorporates knowledge from ethology…, etiology…, and genetics in order to derive general principles concerning the biological properties of entire societies” (p. 16).
  2. . A comment made by Daniel R. DeNicola at the Twenty‐sixth Summer Conference (“Evolution, Human Nature, and Values”) of the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science, Star Island, New Hampshire, July 28‐August 4, 1979. See his paper from that conference, “Sociobiology and Religion: A Discussion of the Issues,” in the next issue of Zygon.
  3. . I hope to include such an examination in a forthcoming book on the religious exploration of life.
  4. . Wilson, On Human Nature, p. 46.
  5. . The reference to the life of the mosquito is from ibid., pp. 55–56. The example I gave at the conference of the necessity to attend to detail was also taken from Wilson. He complained (quite rightly) that his opponents had distorted his views by omitting part of a paragraph when they quoted it without any omission marks; but he did the same thing in the final quotation in his book Insect Societies (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971). The quotation is from P. Huber's Recherches sur les Moeurs des Fourmis indigoènes, published in 1810. Wilson's text and bibliography refer to that original French edition. According to Wilson, Huber wrote of an organization and the division of labor including slavery: “This great attribute, which signifies unbounded wisdom, induces us to admire those laws by which providence rules the insect societies….” What Huber actually wrote was: “Ce grand trait, où brille une bonté infinie, en nous rappelant les abus auxquels une institution semblable est sujette chez plusieurs nations policées, nous fait admirer la douceur des lois….” As it stands, Huber can be interpreted as saying the opposite of what Wilson supposed. Where he asked himself (in Scientific American [see wilson, On Human Nature, pp.80–81]),“Does ant slavery hold any lesson for our own species?” and answered, “Probably not,” Huber was answering, “Yes indeed”: If, like the sluggard, we go to the ant for instruction, we may then bring about not the abolition of servitude but what he called “servitude allied to the common interest.”
  6. . Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976). pp. 207, 212.
  7. . Wilson, On Human Nature, pp. 6–7.
  8. . Ibid., pp. 11–13.
  9. . Mohandas K. Gandhi, Young India, 29. 9. 27.
  10. . Bhagavadgita, ed. S. Radhakrishnan (London: Allen & Unwin, 1948), pp. 160–61.
  11. . Samannaphala Sutta 20–22; cf. with this the recurrent image in Wilson, quoting from C. H. Waddington, of the development of a human trait resembling the descent of a ball through a rolling landscape toward the shore. “The developmental topography of human behavior is enormously broader and more complicated [than that of the mosquitol, but it is still a topography” (Wilson, On Human Nature, pp. 60–61).
  12. . In Digha Nikaya 3.1.230 the different compounds of kamma are described.
  13. . Rom. 5:19.
  14. . Rom. 7:19.
  15. . Tertullian De Testimonio Animae 3.
  16. . Tertullian De Anima 39. 41.
  17. . Tertullian De Baptism 18. 4.
  18. . E.Ferguson, “Inscriptions and the Origin of Infant Baptism,” Journal of Theological Studies  30 (1979): 45.
  19. . For a summary see John Norman Davidson Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, 5th ed. (London: A. & C. Black, Ltd., 1977), p. 370. On the earlier Greek fathers, Kelly observes: “The Greek fathers, with their insistence that man's free will remains intact and is the root of actual sinning, have a much more optimistic outlook than the West. It is easy to collect passages from their works which, at any rate in the light of later orthodoxy, appear to rule out any doctrine of original sin. Both the Gregories, for example, as well as Chrysostom, teach that newly born children are exempt from sin” (p. 349).
  20. . See particularly his Selfish Gene, p. 21.
  21. . The word “capacity” is important in On Human Nature (see, e.g., pp. 2, 33, 56, 58–59, and 187). 547.
  22. . In Arthur L. Caplan, ed., The Sociobiology Debate (New York: Harper & Row, 1978), p. 345.
  23. . In ibid., p. 300. Cf. the program articulated by Wilson in Sociobiology, pp. 4 and 547.
  24. . Wilson, On Human Nature, p. 19; see also the specific discussion on pp. 55–61.
  25. . Barash (n. 1 above), pp. 41, 286, 125, 287, 226, and 284.
  26. . Ibid., p. 286.
  27. . Ibid., p. 287.
  28. . Ibid., p. 308.
  29. . Ibid., p. 311.
  30. . Time (August 1, 1977), p. 54, as quoted by S. J. Could, “Sociobiology: The Art of Storytelling,” New Science (November 16, 1978), p. 533.
  31. . Barash, p. 6.
  32. . C. Longuet‐Higgins, “The Seat of the Soul,” in Towards a Theoretical Biology, ed. C. H. Waddington, 3 vols. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1970), 3:237. Longuet‐Higgins develops the point that even if the calculation were possible in practice, it would not actually yield the answer to the question because the goal is unrealizable: “A quantum‐mechanical calculation on one particular bacterial cell would be incorrect for every other cell, even of the same species.”
  33. . Barash, p. 41.
  34. . E. L. Mascall, The Importance of Being Human, Bampton Lectures in America, no. 11 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958), p. 33.
  35. . As quoted by Barash, p. xv.
  36. . Caplan (n. 22 above), p. xi.
  37. . William Jones, The Theological, Philosophical, and Miscellaneous Works, ed. W. Stevens, 12 vols. (London, 1801), 10:70ff.
  38. . See the illustrations in Athanasius Kircher, Misurgia Universalis, 2 vols. (Rome: Francisci Corbelletti, 1650), 2:311.
  39. . Matthew Young, An Enquiry into the Principal Phaenomena of Sounds and Musical Strings (London: G. Robinson, 1784), p. 170.
  40. . Tobias Smollett, Ferdinand Count Fathom (1755).
  41. . Curt Sachs, The History of Musical Instruments (London: Dent & Sons, 1942). p. 402.
  42. . Thomas Love Peacock, The Four Ages Of Poetry (and Percy Bysshe Shelley, A Defence of Poetry), ed. John E. Jordan (Indianapolis: Bobbs‐Merrill Co., 1965), p. 20.
  43. . It is true that William Wordsworth, in Lyrical Ballads, made a deliberate attempt to return to the language and passions of the people. In his own words, “…I have chosen subjects from common life, and endeavoured to bring my language near to the real language of men” (“Preface to the Lyrical Ballads”). The results would scarcely have met Peacock's criticisms and in some instances cannot possibly count as successful poetry: Consider the first versions of “Simon Lee” and “The Thorn.”
  44. . Wilson, On Human Nature, pp. ix‐x.
  45. . Peacock, pp. 15–16.
  46. . See particularly the opening chapter of my The Sense of God: Sociobiological, Anthropological and Psychological Approaches to the Origin of the Sense of God (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973).
  47. . Julien Offray de La Mettrie, Man a Machine, traps. Gertrude C. Bussey (La Salle, Ill.: Open Court Publishing Co., 1943), p. 135.
  48. . Wilson, On Human Nature, p. 1.
  49. . La Mettrie (n. 47 above).
  50. . Ibid., p. 100.
  51. . Ibid., p. 103.
  52. . Ibid., p. 127; see also Julien Offray de La Mettrie, L'homme Machine: A Study in the Origins of an Idea (critical ed., with an introductory monograph and notes by Aram Vartanian) (Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1960), p. 179.
  53. . La Mettrie (n. 47 above), p. 148.
  54. . Ibid., p. 149.
  55. . G. W. F. Hegel, Hegel's Philosophy of Right, trans. T. M. Knox (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1945), p. 127.
  56. . As quoted by Lawrence and Elizabeth Hanson, Necessary Evil: The Life of Jane Welsh Carlyle (London: Constable & Co., 1952), p. 34.
  57. . Walter Jackson Bate, Coleridge (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969), p. 112.
  58. . The letter is in Earl Leslie Griggs, ed., Unpublished Letters of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 2 vols. (London: Constable & Co., 1932), 1:173.
  59. . Bate, p. 12.
  60. . Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Biographia Literaria, ed. George Watson (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1965), p. 62. The Greek word adutos means literally “not to be entered,” hence (and usually) the innermost sanctuary and shrine. See, e.g., Homer Iliad 5. 448, 512.
  61. . Coleridge, p. 68.
  62. . Geoffrey Grigson, The Romantics (London: G. Routledge & Sons, 1942), p. 342.
  63. . In “Coleridge and the Cambridge Platonists,” Review of English Literature 7 (1966): 71–91, W. Schrickx pointed out that Coleridge borrowed from the Bristol Library Society, on May 15, 1795, Ralph Cudworth's True Intellectual System of the Universe and that he borrowed it again for a month in 1796 (p. 72). Referring to the lines from “The Aeolian Harp”—“For never guiltless may 1 speak of him, The Incomprehensible!”—Schrickx suggested a specific influence from Cudworth, “whose general thesis, neatly summarized in the running title of his work (pp. 638–39), is, God, though Incomprehensible, Yet Not Unconceivable” (p. 74).
  64. . Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “The Aeolian Harp.”
  65. . Ibid.
  66. . As quoted by Margaret Gushing Osgood, The City without Walls (London: J. Cape, 1932), pp. 504–5.
  67. . Shelley (n. 42 above), p. 26.
  68. . Bodley manuscript Shelley d. 1.
  69. . Shelley, p. 27.
  70. . William Blake, Blake: Complete Writings, ed. G. Keynes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972), pp. 817–18.
  71. . As quoted by William Thomas Jones, The Romantic Syndrome (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1961), p. 126.
  72. . M. H. Abrams, “The Correspondent Breeze; A Romantic Metaphor,” in English Romantic Poets, ed. M. H. Abrams (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1960), pp. 37–54.
  73. . Finley Peter Dunne, “Machinery,” in Observations by Mr. Dooley (New York: R. H. Russell, 1902).
  74. . As quoted by A. Redman, The Epigrams of Oscar Wilde (London: Alvin Redman, Ltd., 1952), p. 69. The road that leads to “art for Art's sake” and to the autonomy of the poem—“the autonomy of the work itself as existing for its own sake,” as John Crowe Ransom put it (The World's Body [New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 19381, p. 343)—is effectively though briefly traced by M. H. Abrams, “Belief and the Suspension of Disbelief,” in Literature and Belief (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958), pp. 1–30.
  75. . Richard Wagner, “The Music of the Future,” in Art, Life and Theories of Richard Wagner, trans. Edward L. Burlingame (New York: H. Holt & Co., 1889), pp. 160–61.
  76. . Wilson, On Human Nature, p. 1.
  77. . John Donne, “Hymn to God in My Sickness.”
  78. . Lascelles Abercrombie, “Hymn to Love,” the prelude to Emblems of Love (London: John Lane, 1912).
  79. . Francis Thompson, “The Mirage,” in Selected Poems (London: 1921), p. 25.