Ainsworth, Mary D. S.1977. “Attachment Theory and its Utility in Cross‐Cultural Research  .”In Culture and Infancy, ed. P. H.Leiderman, S. R.Tulkin, and A.Rosenfeld, 49 – 68. New York : Academic Press.

Alcock, John. 1998. Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach. 6th ed. Sunderland , Mass. : Sinauer.

Alexander, Richard D. 1979. Darwinism and Human Affairs. Seattle : Univ. of Washington Press.

Alexander, Richard D. 1987. Biology of Moral Systems. Hawthorne , N.Y. : Aldine.

Alexander, Richard D. 1990. “Epigenetic Rules and Darwinian Algorithms. Ethology and Sociobiology  11: 241 – 303.

Andelson, Jonathan G. 1983. “Communitarianism, Familism, and Individualism among the Inspirationists at Amana. International Journal of Sociology of the Family  13: 45 – 62.

Andrews, Edward D. 1963. The People Called Shakers. New York : Dover.

Auboyer, Jeannine. 1965. Daily Life in Ancient India. New York : Macmillan.

Badcock, Christopher R. 1987. The Problem of Altruism: Freudian‐Darwinian Solutions. London : Basil Blackwell.

Balch, Stephen H. 1985. “The Neutered Civil Servant: Eunuchs, Celibates, Abductees and the Maintenance of Organizational Loyalty. Journal of Social and Biological Structures  8: 313 – 28.

Barber, Malcolm. 1994. The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press.

Barnett, H. G. 1953. Innovation: The Basis of Cultural Change. New York : McGraw‐Hill.

Baumgarten, Albert I. 1996. “The Temple Scroll. Toilet Practices, and the Essenes. Journal of Jewish Studies  10(1):9 – 20.

Baumgarten, Albert I. 1997. “He Knew That He Knew That He Knew That He Was an Essene. Journal of Jewish Studies  48(1):53 – 61.

Baumgarten, Albert I. 1998. “Ancient Jewish Sectarianism  . Judaism47(4):387 – 403.

Beall, Todd S. 1988. Josephus’ Description of the Essenes Illustrated by the Dead Sea Scrolls. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press.

Bellamy, James A. 1979. “Sex and Society in Islamic Popular Literature  .”In Society and the Sexes in Medieval Islam, ed. A. LuftiAl‐Sayyid‐Marsot, 23 – 42. Malibu : Undena.

Belsky, Jay, LaurenceSteinberg, and PatriciaDraper. 1991. “Childhood Experience, Interpersonal Development, and Reproductive Strategy: An Evolutionary Theory of Socialization. Child Development  62: 647 – 70.

Betzig, Laura. 1995. “Medieval Monogamy. Journal of Family History  20 (2):181 – 216.

Bhattacharyya, Sivaprasad. 1953. “Religious Practices of the Hindus  .”In Religion of the Hindus, ed. K. W.Morgan, 154 – 205. New York : Ronald Press.

Boone, James L. 1986. “Parental Investment and Elite Family Structure in Preindustrial States: A Case Study of Medieval–Early Modern Portuguese Genealogies. American Anthropologist  88: 859 – 78.

Bourke, Andrew F. G.2001. “Social Insects and Selfish Genes. Biologist  48: 205 – 8.

Bromley, David G., Anson D.ShupeJr., and Donna L.Oliver. 1982. “Perfect Families: Visions of the Future in a New Religious Movement. Marriage and Family Review  4(3/4): 119 – 29.

Brown, Donald. 1991. Human Universals. Philadelphia : Temple Univ. Press.

Bunnag, Jane. 1973. Buddhist Monk, Buddhist Layman: A Study of Urban Monastic Organization in Central Thailand. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press.

Burton, Janet. 1994. Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain 1000–1300. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press.

Chagnon, Napoleon A. 1979. “Mate Competition, Favoring Close Kin, and Village Fissioning among Yanomamo Indians  .”In Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior, ed. N. A.Chagnon and W.Irons, 86 – 131. North Scituate , Mass. : Duxbury.

Chagnon, Napoleon A. 1988. “Male Yanomamo Manipulations of Kinship Classifications of Female Kin for Reproductive Advantage  .”In Human Reproductive Behavior: A Darwinian Perspective, ed. L.Betzig, M. BorgerhoffMulder, and P.Turke, 23 – 48. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press.

Cholij, Roman. 1989. Clerical Celibacy in East and West. Hereford , England : Fowler Wright.

Christenfeld, N. J. S., and E. A.Hill. 1995. “Whose Baby Are YouNature  (London) 378: 669.

Coser, Lewis A. 1974. Greedy Institutions: Patterns of Undivided Commitment. New York : Free Press.

Crippen, Timothy, and RichardMachalek. 1989. “The Evolutionary Foundations of the Religious Life. Revue Internationale de Sociologie  3: 61 – 84.

Cronk, Lee. 1994. “Evolutionary Theories of Morality and the Manipulative Use of Signals. Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science  29 (March): 81 – 101.

Daly, Martin, CatherineSalmon, and MargoWilson. 1997. “Kinship: The Conceptual Hole in Psychological Studies of Social Cognition and Close Relationships  .”In Evolutionary Social Psychology, ed. J. A.Simpson and D. T.Kenrick, 265 – 96. Mahwah , N.J. : Erlbaum.

Davis, Rex, and James T.Richardson. 1992. “The Organization and Functioning of the Children of God  .”In New and Intense Movements  , ed. M. E.Marty, 322 – 40. Modern American Protestantism and Its World, No. 11. Munich : K. G. Saur.

Dawkins, Richard. 1979. “Twelve Misunderstandings of Kin Selection. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie  51: 184 – 200.

Dazey, Wade H. 1990. “Tradition and Modernization in the Organization of the Dasanami Samyasins  .”In Monastic Life in the Christian and Hindu Traditions, ed. A. B.Creel and V.Narayanan, 281 – 321. Lewiston , N.Y. : Edwin Mellen.

DeValk, Alphonse. 1990. Priestly Celibacy in History. Toronto : Life Ethics Centre, Pamphlet #27.

DeLamater, John. 1987. “A Sociological Approach  .”In Theories of Human Sexuality, ed. J. H.Greer and W. T.O'Donohue, 237 – 56. New York : Plenum.

Denton, Lynn Teskey. 1991. “Varieties of Female Hindu Asceticism  .”In Roles and Rituals for Hindu Women, ed. J.Leslie, 211 – 31. London : Pinter.

Dickemann, Mildred. 1997. “Paternal Confidence and Dowry Competition: A Biocultural Analysis of Purdah  .”In Human Nature: A Critical Reader, ed. L.Betzig, 311 – 28. New York : Oxford Univ. Press.

Dontas, Cleo, OlgaMaratos, MariaFafoutis, and AntigoneKarangelis. 1985. “Early Social Development in Institutionally Reared Greek Infants: Attachment and Peer Interaction. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development  50 (1–2):136 – 46.

Draper, Patricia, and HenryHarpending. 1988. “A Sociobiological Perspective on the Development of Human Reproductive Strategies  .”In Sociobiological Perspectives on Human Development, ed. K. B.MacDonald, 340 – 72. New York : Springer‐Verlag.

Dudley, Charles J., and George A.HilleryJr. 1979. “Freedom and Monastery Life. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion  18 (1):18 – 28.

Dundas, Paul. 1992. The Jains. London : Routledge.

Elder, Joseph W. 1990. “Some Roots and Branches of Hindu Monasticism  .”In Monastic Life in the Christian and Hindu Traditions, ed. A. B.Creel and V.Narayanan, 1 – 36. Studies in Comparative Religion, Vol. 3. Lewiston , N.Y. : Edwin Mellen.

Emlen, Stephen T. 1995. “An Evolutionary Theory of the Family. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  92 (18):8092 – 99.

Emlen, Stephen T. 1997. “Predicting Family Dynamics in Social Vertebrates  .”In Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, 4th ed., ed. J. R.Krebs and N. B.Davies, 228 – 53. Oxford : Blackwell Science.

Eshel, Esther. 1994. “4Q477: The Rebukes by the Overseer. Journal of Jewish Studies  45(1): 111 – 18.

Fletcher, David J. C., and Charles D.Michener, eds. 1987. Kin Recognition in Animals. New York : John Wiley.

Foster, Lawrence. 1995. “Sexuality and Relationships in the Shaker, Oneida, and Mormon Communities. Communities  87: 52 – 56.

Frazee, Charles A. 1998. “The Origins of Clerical Celibacy in the Western Church. Church History  57 (suppl.): 108 – 26.

Galanter, Marc. 1993. “Charismatic Religious Sects and Psychiatry: An Overview  .”In New and Intense Movements, ed. M. E.Marty, 117 – 40. Modern American Protestantism and its World, No. 11. Munich : K. G. Saur.

Gauthier, Isabel, and Nikos K.Logothetis. 2000. “Is Face Recognition Not So Unique After AllCognitive Neuropsychology  17 (1/2/3): 125 – 42.

Ghurye, Golind S. 1964. Indian Sadhus. 2d ed. Bombay : Popular Prakashan.

Goergen, Donald. 1974. The Sexual Celibate. New York : Seabury.

Gossen, Gary H. 1997. South and Meso‐American Native Spirituality: From the Cult of the Feathered Serpent to the Theology of Liberation. New York : Crossroad Herder.

Grafen, Alan. 1990. “Biological Signals as Handicaps. Journal of Theoretical Biology  144: 517 – 46.

Hager, Barbara J. 1992. “Get Thee to a Nunnery: Female Religious Claustration in Medieval Europe. Ethology and Sociobiology  13: 385 – 407.

Hamilton, W. D. 1963. “The Evolution of Altruistic Behavior. The American Naturalist  97: 354 – 56.

Hamilton, W. D. 1964. “The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior, I,II. Journal of Theoretical Biology  7 (1): 1 – 16, 17 – 52.

Henderson, William D. 1985. Cohesion: The Human Element in Combat. Washington , D.C. : National Defense University Press.

Hepper, Peter G. 1991a. Kin Recognition. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press.

Hepper, Peter G. 1991b. “Recognizing Kin: Ontogeny and Classification  .”In Kin Recognition, 259 – 88. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press.

Hillery, George A.Jr. 1992. The Monastery: A Study in Freedom, Love, and Community. Westport , Conn. : Praeger.

Hood, Ralph W.Jr., BernardSpilka, BruceHunsberger, and RichardGorsuch. 1996. The Psychology of Religion: An Empirical Approach. New York : Guilford.

Horner, I. B. 1982a. The Book of the Discipline (Vinaya‐Pitaka), Volume I. Sacred Books of the Buddhists, Vol. X. London : Pali Text Society.

Horner, I. B. 1982b. The Book of the Discipline (Vinaya‐Pitaka), Volume II. Sacred Books of the Buddhists, Vol. XI. London : Pali Text Society.

Horner, I. B. 1983. The Book of the Discipline (Vinaya‐Pitaka), Volume IV. Sacred Books of the Buddhists, Vol. XIII. London : Pali Text Society.

Hughes, Austin L. 1988. Evolution and Human Kinship. New York : Oxford Univ. Press.

Hurford, James R. 1991. “The Evolution of the Critical Period for Language Acquisition. Cognition  40: 159 – 201.

Ingersoll, Jasper. 1966. “The Priest Role in Central Village Thailand  .”In Anthropological Studies in Theravada Buddhism, ed. A.Suddard, 51 – 76. Cultural Report Series No. 13, Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University.

Jennions, Michael D., and David W.Macdonald. 1994. “Cooperative Breeding in Mammals. Trends in Ecology and Evolution  9: 89 – 93.

Johnson, Gary R. 1986. “Kin Selection, Socialization, and Patriotism: An Integrating Theory  . Politics and the Life Sciences4(2):127 – 54.

Johnson, Gary R. 1989. “The Role of Kin Recognition Mechanisms in Patriotic Socialization: Further Reflections. Politics and the Life Sciences  8: 62 – 69.

Johnson, Gary R., Susan H.Ratwick, and Timothy J.Sawyer. 1987. “The Evocative Significance of Kin Terms in Patriotic Speech  .”In The Sociobiology of Ethnocentrism, ed. V.Reynolds, V.Falger, and I.Vine, 157 – 74. London : Croom Helm.

Johnson, Jill L., Francis T.McAndrew, and Paul B.Harris. 1991. “Sociobiology and the Naming of Adopted and Natural Children. Ethology and Sociobiology  12: 365 – 75.

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1972. Commitment and Community: Communes and Utopias in Sociological Perspective. Cambridge : Harvard Univ. Press.

Kanwisher, Nancy. 2000. “Domain Specificity in Face Perception. Nature Neuroscience  3(8): 759 – 63.

Karamustafa, Ahmet T. 1994. God's Unruly Friends: Dervish Groups in the Islamic Later Middle Period, 1200–1550. Salt Lake City : Univ. of Utah Press.

Kitch, Sally L. 1989. Chaste Liberation: Celibacy and Female Cultural Status. Urbana , Ill. : Univ. of Illinois Press.

Knowles, David. 1951. The Monastic Constitutions of Lanfranc. New York : Oxford Univ. Press.

Komdeur, J., and B. J.Hatchwell. 1999. “Kin Recognition: Function and Mechanism in Avian Societies. Trends in Ecology and Evolution  14: 237 – 41.

Lewis, I. M. 1969. People of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. London : International African Institute.

Linge, David E. 1990. “Asceticism and ‘Singleness of Mind’ in the Desert Fathers  .”In Monastic Life in the Christian and Hindu Traditions  , ed. A. B.Creel and V.Narayanan, 37 – 70. Studies in Comparative Religion, Vol. 3. Lewiston , N.Y. : Edwin Mellen.

Low, Bobbi S. 2000. “Sex, Wealth and Fertility: Old Rules, New Environments  .”In Adaptation and Human Behavior, ed. L.Cronk, N.Chagnon, and W.Irons, 323 – 44. New York : Aldine de Gruyter.

Mason, Emma. 1998. “Monastic Habits in Medieval Worcester  . History Today48(5):37 – 43.

McCann, Abbot Justin. 1963. The Rule of Saint Benedict. 3d ed. Westminster : Newman.

McLain, D. Kelly, DianaSetters, Michael P.Moulton, and Anna E.Pratt. 2000. “Ascription of Resemblance of Newborns by Parents and Nonrelatives. Evolution & Human Behavior  21: 11 – 23.

Moorhouse, Geoffrey. 1969. Against All Reason. New York : Stein and Day.

Muncy, Raymond L. 1973. Sex and Marriage in Utopian Communities: 19th‐Century America. Bloomington Ind. : Indiana Univ. Press.

Muncy, Raymond L. 1988. “Sex and Marriage in Utopia. Society  (Jan/Feb): 46 – 48.

Murdock, George P., and Douglas R.White. 1969. “Standard Cross‐Cultural Sample. Ethnology  8 (4): 329 – 69.

Napier, Michael. 1989. “Preface  .”In Clerical Celibacy in East and West, by RomanCholij. Hereford , England : Fowler Wright.

Narayanan, Vasudha. 1990. “‘Renunciation in Saffron and White Robes  .”In Monastic Life in the Christian and Hindu Traditions, ed. A. B.Creel and V.Narayanan, 161 – 90. Lewiston , N.Y. : Edwin Mellen.

Nash, Manning. 1963. “Burmese Buddhism in Everyday Life. American Anthropologist  65: 285 – 95.

Oates, Kerris, and MargoWilson. 2002. “Nominal Kinship Cues Facilitate Altruism. Proceedings: Biological Sciences  269 (1487): 105 – 9.

Olivelle, J. Patrick. 1990. “Village vs. Wilderness: Ascetic Ideals and the Hindu World  .”In Monastic Life in the Christian and Hindu Traditions, ed. A. B.Creel and V.Narayanan, 126 – 60. Studies in Comparative Religion, Vol. 3. Lewiston , N.Y. : Edwin Mellen.

Oman, John Campbell. 1973. The Mystics, Ascetics, and Saints of India. Delhi : Oriental Publishers.

Osiek, Carolyn, and David L.Balch. 1997. Families in the New Testament World. Louisville , Ky. : Westminster John Knox.

Ozment, Steven. 1972. “Marriage and the Ministry in the Protestant Churches  .”In Celibacy in the Church, ed. W.Bassett and P.Huizing, 39 – 56. New York : Herder and Herder.

Pfanner, David E. 1966. “The Buddhist Monk in Rural Burmese Society  .”In Anthropological Studies in Theravada Buddhism, ed. A.Suddard, 77 – 96. Cultural Report Series No. 13, Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University.

Pinker, Steven, and PaulBloom. 1992. “Natural Language and Natural Selection  .”In The Adapted Mind, ed. J. H.Barkow, L.Cosmides, and J.Tooby, 451 – 93. New York : Oxford Univ. Press.

Qimron, Elisha. 1992. “Celibacy in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Two Kinds of Sectarians  .”In The Madrid Qumran Congress, Vol. 1, ed. J. T.Barrera and L. V.Montaner, 287 – 94. Leiden : E. J. Brill.

Qirko, Hector. 2001. “The Maintenance and Reinforcement of Celibacy in Institutionalized Settings  .”In Anthropological Approaches to Sexual Celibacy, ed. E. J.Sobo and S.Bell. Madison : Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

Qirko, Hector. 2002. “The Institutional Maintenance of Celibacy. Current Anthropology  43 (2): 321 – 28.

Reynolds, Vernon. 1986. “Religious Rules and Reproductive Strategies  .”In Essays in Human Sociobiology, vol. II, ed. J.Wind and V.Reynolds, 105 – 17. Brussels : V. U. B. Study Series 26.

Rogers, Everett M., and Floyd F.Shoemaker. 1971. Communication of Innovations: A Cross‐Cultural Approach. New York : Free Press.

Rousseau, Philip. 1985. Pachomius: The Making of a Community in Fourth‐Century Egypt. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.

Rubenson, Samuel. 1995. “Christian Asceticism and the Emergence of the Monastic Tradition  .”In Asceticism, ed. V. L.Wimbush and R.Valantasis, 49 – 57. New York : Oxford Univ. Press.

Sagi, Abraham, M. E.Lamb, K. S.Lewkowicz, R.Shoham, R.Dvir, and D.Estes. 1985. “Security of Infant‐Mother, ‐Father, and ‐Metaplet Attachments among Kibbutz‐Reared Israeli Children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development  50 (1–2): 257 – 75.

Seward, Desmond. 1972. The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders. Hamden , Conn. : Archon.

Shepher, Joseph. 1971. “Mate Selection among Second Generation Kibbutz Adolescents and Adults: Incest Avoidance and Negative Imprinting. Archives of Sexual Behavior  1(4): 293 – 307).

Sherman, Paul W., and Warren G.Holmes. 1985. “Kin Recognition: Issues and Evidence  .”In Experimental Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ed. B.Holldobler and M.Lindauer, 437 – 60. New York : Gustav Fischer Verlag.

Snow, David A., and RichardMachalek. 1984. “The Sociology of Conversion. Annual Review of Sociology  10: 167 – 90.

Sober, Elliott, and David SloanWilson. 1998a. Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Cambridge : Harvard Univ. Press.

Sober, Elliott, and David SloanWilson. 1998b. “The Golden Rule of Group Selection. Skeptic  6 (4):83 – 86.

Sosis, Richard. 2000. “Religion and Intra‐Group Cooperation: Preliminary Results of a Comparative Analysis of Utopian Communities. Cross-Cultural Research  34 (1): 70 – 87.

Spiro, Melford E. 1970. Buddhism and Society. New York : Harper and Row.

Stegemann, Harmut. 1992. “The Qumran Essenes–Local Members of the Main Jewish Union in the Late Second Temple Times  .”In The Madrid Qumran Congress, Vol. 1, ed. J. T.Barrera and L. V.Montaner, 83 – 166. Leiden : E. J. Brill.

Symons, Dom Thomas. 1953. The Monastic Agreement of the Monks and Nuns of the English Nation. London : Thomas Nelson.

Talmon, Yohina. 1964. “Mate Selection in Collective Settlements. American Sociological Review  29: 491 – 508.

Thompson, Nicholas S. 2000. “Shifting the Natural Selection Metaphor to the Group Level. Behavior and Philosophy  28: 83 – 101.

Timko, Philip. 1990. “Pray at Fixed Times, Pray Always: Patterns of Monastic Prayer  .”In Monastic Life in the Christian and Hindu Traditions, ed. A. B.Creel and V.Narayanan, 97 – 124. Lewiston , N.Y. : Edwin Mellen.

Trivers, Robert L. 1971. “The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology  46: 35 – 57.

Trivers, Robert L. 1985. Social Evolution. Menlo Park , Calif. : Benjamin/Cummins.

Trivers, Robert L. 1998. “As They Would Do to You: A Review of Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior, by Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson.Skeptic  6 (4):81 – 83.

Tsomo, Karma Lekshe. 1994. “Buddhist Ethics in Japan and Tibet: A Comparative Study of the Adoption of Bodhisattva and Pratimoksa Precepts  .”In Buddhist Behavioral Codes and the Modern World, ed. C. Wei‐HsunFu and S. A.Wawrytko, 123 – 38. Westport , Conn. : Greenwood.

van denBerghe, Pierre L. 1981. The Ethnic Phenomenon. New York : Elsevier.

van denBerghe, Pierre L. 1983. “Human Inbreeding Avoidance: Culture in Nature. Behavioral and Brain Sciences  6: 91 – 123.

van denBerghe, Pierre L., and KarlPeter. 1988. “Hutterites and Kibbutzniks: A Tale of Nepotistic Communism. Man  23: 522 – 39.

Verkamp, Bernard J. 1995. The Evolution of Religion. Scranton , Pa. : Univ. of Scranton Press.

Vermes, Geza, and Martin D.Goodman. 1989. The Essenes according to the Classical Sources. Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies. Sheffield : JSOT Press.

Wach, Joachim. 1962. Sociology of Religion. Chicago : Univ. of Chicago Press.

Weber, Max. 1964. The Sociology of Religion. Boston : Beacon.

Wilson, Edward O. 1987. “Kin Recognition: An Introductory Synopsis  .”In Kin Recognition in Animals, ed. D. J. C.Fletcher and C. D.Michener, 7 – 18. New York : John Wiley.

Wolf, Arthur. 1995. Sexual Attraction and Childhood Association. Stanford : Stanford Univ. Press.

Wynne, Edward A. 1988. Traditional Catholic Religious Orders: Living in Community. New Brunswick : Transaction Books.

Yalman, Nur. 1962. “The Ascetic Buddhist Monks of Ceylon. Ethnology  1 (3): 315 – 28.

Yamagiwa, Nobuyuki, and Jonathan A.Silk. 1994. “The Importance of Vinaya in the Study of Indian Buddhism, with Special Reference to Chinese Sources  .”In Buddhist Behavioral Codes and the Modern World, ed. C. Wei‐HsunFu and S. A.Wawrytko, 101 – 9. Westport , Conn. : Greenwood.

Zahavi, Amotz, and AvishagZahavi. 1997. The Handicap Principle. Oxford Univ. Press.

Zias, Joseph E. 2000. “The Cemeteries of Qumran and Celibacy: Confusion Laid to RestDead Sea Discoveries  7 (2): 220 – 53.