1. . I have developed the ideas presented here more expansively in my doctoral dissertation, “Body Thinking in Ecclesiology and Cybernetics” (Harvard University, 1970).
  2. . PaulTillich, “The Religious Symbol,” trans. J. L. Adams, Journal of Liberal Religion  2 (1940): 13–14; Susanne Langer, Philosophy in a New Key (New York: New American Library, 1951), p. 239.
  3. . Karl Deutsch's The Nerves of Government (New York: Free Press, 1966) presents the furthest‐ranging exploration of the implications of cybernetics for political sci‐ ence. I have drawn on his work extensively in formulating my own position. See also Norbert Wiener's Cybernetics, 2d ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1965), and The Human Use of Human Beings: Cylmnetics and Socieg 2d rev. ed. (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1954). For Ludwig Bertalanffy, see his Robots, Men, and Minds (New York: George Braziller, Inc., 1967) as well as the journal General Systms. For Kenneth Boulding, see The Organizational Revolution (Chicago: Quadarangle Books, 1968).
  4. . I have in mind the work of John Dollard and Jerome Bruner in psychology, Warren McCullough in neurology, and Claude Lkvi‐Strauss in anthropology. Cybernetics has even appeared as the basis for self‐help psychotherapy of the positive‐ thinking variety in Maxwell Maltz, Psycho‐cjbernetics (New York: Essandess Special Editions, 1967).
  5. . Deutsch has had a long‐time interest in political confederation and decentraliza‐ tion. For a recent statement, see Manfred Kochen and Karl W. Deutsch, “Toward a Rational Theory of Decentralization: Some Implications of a Mathematical Approach,” American Political Science Reziieu: 63 (1969): 734‐49.
  6. . For examples see Mary Virginia Orna, Cybrmtic Society and the Church (Dayton, Ohio: Pflaum Press, 1969); and Peter F. Rudge, Mini.stry and Management (London: Tavistock Publications, 1968).